ارزیابی تأثیر باکتری‌های ریزوسفری و غیر ریزوسفری حل‌کننده فسفات بر بهبود شاخص‌های رشد گیاه گندم تحت تنش شوری و خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یکی از راهکارهای کاهش کودهای شیمیایی فسفره در دیم زارها، استفاده از باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات است. در این پژوهش، جدایه‌های باکتری ریزوسفری و غیر ریزوسفری از دیم‌زارهای گندم قزوین و زنجان جداسازی و از نظر ویژگی‌های محرک رشد گیاهی و مقاومت به شوری و خشکی غربالگری شدند. در مجموع 184 جدایه ریزوسفری و غیر ریزوسفری از این دیم‌زارها جداسازی شد. با توجه به نتایج غربال‌گری، دو سویه ریزوسفری Pseudomonas sp. W7 و W153 P. baeticaو دو سویه غیر ریزوسفری W72Bacillus pumilusوB. safensis W73 به عنوان سویه‌های برتر انتخاب و تأثیر آنها بر شاخص‌های رشد گندم و مقدار فسفر گیاه در قالب یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی در آرایش فاکتوریل با سه تکرار تحت تنش خشکی (فشار اسمزی منفی پنج بار) و شوری (نیم درصد NaCl)درشرایط درون شیشه‌ای بررسی شد. در این تحقیق، سویه‌های W7، W153، W72، W73 و B0 به عنوان فاکتور اول و ارقام گندم روشن (رقم فسفر کارا) و مرودشت (رقم فسفر ناکارا) به عنوان فاکتور دوم در نظر گرفته شدند. برترین سویه‌ها از حیث شاخص HD/CD (قطر هاله به قطر کلونی) در ارزیابی کیفی توان حل‌کنندگی فسفات آلی و معدنی باکتری‌های ریزوسفری بودند. هر دو گروه باکتری (ریزوسفری و غیر ریزوسفری) تقریبا توانایی تحمل یکسانی به شوری و خشکی نشان دادند. شاخص‌های رشد گیاه هر دو رقم گندم تحتتنش شوری و خشکی کاهش یافتند. براساسنتایجحاصله، تلقیح دو رقم گندم با باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات منتخب ضمن افزایش مقدار فسفر محلول در محیط رشد توانستند به‌طوری معنی‌داری شاخص­های رشد گیاه (30 تا 53 درصد) و مقدار جذب فسفر گیاه (14 تا 32 درصد) را نسبت به تیمار بدون باکتری افزایش دهند. نتایج همچنین نشان دادند که باکتری‌های غیرریزوسفری (با وجود داشتن توانایی حل‌کنندگی فسفات کمتر) نسبت به باکتری‌های ریزوسفری از کارایی بیشتری در انحلال فسفات نامحلول (خاک فسفات) در محیط رشد گیاه برخوردار بودند. به طور کلی این نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از باکتری­های مقاوم به شوری و خشکی برتر حل‌کننده فسفات می­تواند برخی از محدودیت­های تولید گندم در دیم­زارها را کاهش دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Effect of Rhizospheric and Non-Rhizospheric phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Improving the Growth Indices of Wheat under Salinity and Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. A. Alikhani 1
  • H. Etesami 2
  • L. Mohammadi 3
1 Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
3 MS.c Student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria application in dry-land farming is a strategy for decreasing the consumption of P- fertilizers and environmental stresses. In this study, 184 rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere bacterial isolates from Qazvin and Zanjan soils were screened for plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. According to the results, two rhizosphere bacterial strains (seudomonas sp. W7 and P. baetica W153) and two non-rhizospheric bacterial strains (Bacillus pumilus W72 and B. Safensis W73) were carefully chosen as superior strains. The effects of superior strains on wheat growth indices and plant P content were evaluated in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement with three replications under drought stress (osmotic pressure -5 bar) and salinity (0.5% NaCl) stresses in vitro condition. Strains W7, W153, W72, W73 and B0 were considered as the first factor and the wheat cultivars Roshan (P-efficient cultivar) and Marvdasht (P-inefficient cultivar) were considered as the second factor. Rhizosphere bacteria were the best strains in the qualitative assessment (solubilization of organic and inorganic phosphate). Both groups of bacteria (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere isolates) showed similar tolerances to salinity and drought stress. Growth indices of both wheat cultivars decreased under salinity and drought stress. The results showed that inoculation of two wheat cultivars with selected phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, while increasing the amount of soluble P in the growth medium, could significantly increase plant growth indices (30- 53%) and plant P uptake (14-32%) compared to non-inoculated treatments. The results also showed that non-rhizospheric bacteria (despite having lower phosphate solubilization ability) were more effective in solubilizing insoluble phosphate (rock phosphate) in plant growth medium than rhizosphere bacteria. In general, these results indicated that using phosphate solubilizing bacteria can reduce some of the limitations of wheat production in dry-land farming

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