پیامد کاربرد آفت‌کش کلروپیروفوس بر فراوانی برخی ریزجانداران خاک در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

2 استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

3 استادیار گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه جامع امام حسین(ع)، تهران

چکیده

کلروپیروفوس یکی از آفت‌کش­هایی است که به میزان فراوانی در کشاورزی کاربرد دارد و می‌تواند بر ریزجانداران خاک اثرات بازدارنده داشته باشد. در این پژوهش آزمایشگاهی پیامد کاربرد سم کلروپیروفوس در غلظت‌های 0، 4، 12، 50 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم در خاک بر لگاریتم فراوانی ریزجانداران خاک در محیط کشت قارچ‌ها، اکتینومیست‌ها، سودوموناس‌ها، باکتری‌های روده‌ایو ازتوباکتر در زمان‌های 2، 4، 7، 20،10، 30 و 40 روز در غالب تحلیل واریانس با اندازه‌گیری‌های تکراری بررسی شد. پیامد این آفت‌کش ارگانوفسفره بر تنوع زیستی جانداران یاد شده نیز بررسی شد. براساس برآورد‌های آزمایش، کاربرد 4 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کلروپیروفوس منجر به کاهش فراوانی ازتوباکتر و اکتینومیست‌ها و افزایش فراوانی سودوموناس‌ها گردید. در این غلظت از کلروپیروفوس، لگاریتم فراوانی قارچ­ها و باکتری‌های روده‌ای تفاوت معنی‌داری در مقایسه با نمونه خاک کنترل نداشتند. کاربرد 12و 50 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم از کلروپیروفوس در خاک سبب کاهش بیشتر گروه‌های ریزجانداران قابل کشت شد. غنای گروهی ریزجانداران بررسی شده در تیمار 4 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کلروپیروفوس بیش از کنترل و در 50 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کاهش داشت. همچنین کاربرد تیمارهای 4 و 12 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کلروپیروفوس در خاک منجر به کاهش تنوع و یکنواختی گروهی و افزایش شناسه چیرگی (غلبه) زیستی ریز جانداران بررسی شده در برابر نمونه کنترل در خاک شد. بنابراین سم کلروپیروفوس در بازه زمانی40 روز به ویژه زمانی که بیش از اندازه پیشنهاد شده به خاک افزوده شود، بر فراوانی و شناسه‌های تنوع ریزجانداران کشت‌پذیر خاک پیامد بازدارنده معنی‌دار دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of Chlorpyrifos on frequency of some microorganisms in soil in the laboratory condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Amani 1
  • A. A. Safari Sinegani 2
  • F. Ebrahimi 3
  • S. Nazarian 3
1 PhD student. Soil Science College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University. Hamadan
2 Professor. Soil Science College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University. Hamadan
3 Assistant Professor. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein University, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Chlorpyrifos is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture and may have a detrimental effect on soil microorganisms. In a laboratory research, the effect of different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0, 4, 12, 50 mg/kg) on the log frequency of fungi, actinomycete, pseudomonas, intestinal bacteria and azotobacter during  2, 4, 7, 18, 30 and 40 days was considered as a repeated measures ANOVA. The effect of the organophosphorus pesticide also evaluated on biodiversity of the microorganisms. Result showed that after application of 4 mg/kg chlorpyrifos in the soil, the frequency of actinomycete and azotobacter decreased but pseudomonas frequency increased compared to control. Frequency of intestinal bacteria and fungi were similar to control. The log frequency of the most studied microorganisms decreased after 12 and 50 mg/kg chlorpyrifos application. In concentrations of 4 and 50 mg/kg chlorpyrifos, richness of the studied microorganism increased and decreased respectively, compared to the control. In 4 and 12 mg/kg chlorpyrifos concentrations, biological diversity and evenness decreased but dominance index increased in comparison with control treatment. Therefore, application of chlorpyrifos, especially more than the recommended dose, had inhibitory effect on the frequency and diversity of soil microorganisms, in the period of 40 days after application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Actinomycete
  • Bacteria
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • fungi
  • Soil pollution
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